Laryngeal mask airway
20 rows · LMA in Medical. LMA. Laryngeal Mask Airway + 1 variant. Otolaryngology, Anesthesiology. Jul 17, · A laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a device inserted into the area behind the mouth and nose, connecting them to the food pipe (the pharynx) to allow ventilation, oxygenation, and administration of anesthetic gases, without the need for inserting a tube in the windpipe (endotracheal intubation).
Copyright AcronymFinder. Suggest new definition. References in periodicals archive? A working group set up by The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland AAGBI looking at exposure to blood borne viruses recognises the fact that anaesthetists put their fingers into the mouths of patients and addresses a concern of patients or anaesthetists being infected during the insertion of an LMA whilst using the manufacturer's technique AAGBI Insertion oma of the laryngeal mask airway: a literature review.
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Oct 28, · Laryngeal Mask Airway or LMA was discovered by Archies Brain so also called as a Brain Mask. LMA are special type of airways which are useful in difficult intubation. It is placed blindly in the oropharynx and the cuff is inflated with large volume of air . 26 rows · LMA: Latvian Medical Academy ** LMA: Left Main Artery Artery And Arteries ** LMA. What does LMA stand for? List of LMA definitions. Top LMA abbreviation meanings updated January Lightspeed Memory Architecture Technology, Computing, Card. LMA. Loin Muscle Area Category - Medical terms; Abbreviation in category - Bae in slang.
A laryngeal mask airway LMA — also known as laryngeal mask — is a medical device that keeps a patient's airway open during anaesthesia or unconsciousness. It is a type of supraglottic airway device. A laryngeal mask is composed of an airway tube that connects to an elliptical mask with a cuff which is inserted through the patient's mouth, down the windpipe , and once deployed forms an airtight seal on top the glottis unlike tracheal tubes which pass through the glottis allowing a secure airway to be managed by a health care provider.
They are most commonly used by anaesthetists to channel oxygen or anaesthesia gas to a patient's lungs during surgery and in the pre-hospital setting for instance by paramedics and emergency medical technicians for unconscious patients. The laryngeal mask is still widely used today worldwide and a variety of specialised laryngeal masks exist.
A laryngeal mask has an airway tube that connects to an elliptical mask with a cuff. The cuff can either be of the inflating type achieved after insertion using a syringe of air , or self-sealing. Once inserted correctly and the cuff inflated where relevant the mask conforms to the anatomy with the bowl of the mask facing the space between the vocal cords. After correct insertion, the tip of the laryngeal mask sits in the throat against the muscular valve that is located at the upper portion of the esophagus.
Archie Brain began studying the anatomy and physiology of the upper airway in relation to existing airways. Brain concluded that current techniques for connecting artificial airways to the patient were not ideal, reasoning that if the respiratory tree is seen as a tube ending at the glottis and the objective is to connect this tube to an artificial airway, the most logical solution was to create a direct end-to-end junction. Existing airway devices clearly failed to form this junction; the face-mask sealed against the face, and the endotracheal tube penetrated too far so that the junction was created within the trachea, instead of at its beginning.
The first study of a laryngeal mask in 23 patients was conducted at London Hospital in Insertion and ventilation using the laryngeal mask in 16 anaesthetised, paralysed female patients was successful, achieving a seal greater than 20 cm H 2 O in all patients. Emergence from anaesthesia was also noted to be uneventful and only 3 patients complained of a sore throat, a marked contrast to endotracheal tube anaesthesia.
Following the success of the initial study, Brain successfully inserted and ventilated 6 anaesthetised, non-paralysed patients. Finding no difference between the first and second group of patients, Brain realised that muscle relaxtion was not required for insertion.
Finally, Dr Brain used the device in a dental extraction patient, he realised that because the space in and around the glottis was filled by the mask, the need for packing was much reduced and more impressively the larynx was completely protected from surgical debris. Brain realised the exciting possibility that the laryngeal mask could be applied to head and neck surgery  and also observed that "In two patients the anatomy was such as to suggest that endotracheal intubation might have presented at least moderate difficulty.
Neither presented difficulty with regard to insertion of the laryngeal mask ". Brain published a case series in Anaesthesia in describing the management of 3 difficult airway patients, illustrating the use of the laryngeal mask for airway rescue. Brain with 5 co-authors published a second paper in anaesthesia describing the use of the laryngeal mask in over patients, adding considerable credence to the laryngeal mask concept.
However the limitation of the prototypes remained, a new material was urgently needed. Following the realisation that a new material was needed, Brain looked at a number of options; polyvinyl chloride was too rigid and synthetic foam did not lend itself to re-use. Silicone prototypes looked promising as what was produced was an ellipse with a flat central web which, if cut correctly, could be used to create an aperture bar to prevent the epiglottis falling into the distal aperture.
The silicone prototype was also smooth and deflated into a wafer thin ellipse, however, the silicone mask was unable to retain the desired bowl shape and it was no longer possible to make rapid adjustments to the design. The silicone Dunlop prototype was superior to the Goldman prototype, one of Brains first prototypes created from the cuff of a latex Goldman dental mask, however Brain needed a material that would give him design flexibility before the next set of silicone moulds were cast.
In , Brain continued to make prototypes from latex with a range of modifications; the inclusion of an inflation line, a thin-walled elliptical ring in the cuff which resulted in equal expansion of the cuff, the creation of a larger size to increase the reliability of cuff seal pressure and a moulded back plate for the cuff.
By December , Brain was ready to conduct the first wholly independent trial and chose John Nunn to be the recipient of the silicone prototypes to conduct the trial. Secondly, as no manual support of the jaw was necessary the hands of the anaesthetist were freed for monitoring, record keeping and other tasks. Thirdly, it was possible to maintain a clear airway throughout transfer of the patient to the recovery room.
The LMA Classic was launched in the UK and the British anaesthesia community were quick to realise the potential benefits of the laryngeal mask. Within 3 years of launch in the UK, the device had been used in at least 2 million patients and was available in every hospital. The anaesthesia community had been calling for practice guidelines and in the ASA commissioned a task force to establish practice guidelines for managing difficult airway situations. The ASA algorithm for difficult airways was published in and stressed an early attempt at insertion of the laryngeal mask if face mask ventilation was not adequate.
The laryngeal mask revolutionised anaesthetic practice and by had been used in excess of million patients and was available in more than 80 countries throughout the world. The laryngeal mask had now been widely accepted as a form of airway management. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Annual Report , pp. The laryngeal mask airway. A study of patients during spontaneous breathing. Anaesthesia,44 3 Anesthesia and anesthesiology. Airway management Anesthesia provision in the US Arterial catheter Bronchoscopy Capnography Dogliotti's principle Drug-induced amnesia Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring Nerve block Penthrox inhaler Tracheal intubation.
Blood—gas partition coefficient Concentration effect Fink effect Minimum alveolar concentration Second gas effect. ASA physical status classification system Baricity Bispectral index Entropy monitoring Fick principle Goldman index Guedel's classification Mallampati score Neuromuscular monitoring Thyromental distance. Anaesthetic machine Anesthesia cart Boyle's machine Gas cylinder Laryngeal mask airway Laryngeal tube Medical monitor Odom's indicator Relative analgesia machine Vaporiser Double-lumen endotracheal tube Endobronchial blocker.
Emergence delirium Allergic reactions Anesthesia awareness Local anesthetic toxicity Malignant hyperthermia Perioperative mortality Postanesthetic shivering Postoperative nausea and vomiting Postoperative residual curarization. Cardiothoracic Critical emergency medicine Geriatric Intensive care medicine Obstetric Oral sedation dentistry Pain medicine.
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