Referencing for students: RMIT Harvard style
Note: The APA referencing style does NOT cover Australian legal material. The citation details below are based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style examples. Paraphrasing in-text. Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Tips for Writing a Research Paper in APA format: Basics: A research paper (especially one that requires APA style) is different than a term paper, a creative writing paper, a composition-style paper, or a thought paper. A research paper requires you to leave out any personal information (both as.
In-text references appear within the body of the document. They include the author s family name and the year of publication, with extra details if required, such as page numbers. A reference list provides full details of all in-text references at how many calories in gelato ice cream end of the document.
In-text reference details include the author s family name or company or organisation name, if the author is a company or organisation and year of publication, with extra information if required, such as page numbers.
An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. If the author is integrated as part of the sentence, only the date and page number for direct quote is in parentheses immediately after the author's name. Use the full word 'and' when mentioning an author s in a sentence. For example: Lewis and Lewis When a work has two or three authors, always list all author s names every time the reference occurs in the text.
When a work has four or more authors, list the first author s name followed by et al. For example: Haslam et al. If the author of a reference is unknown, list the reference based on the title of the work. If the publication date of a reference is unknown, use n.
If the publication date is unknown but can be reliably estimated or inferred from the text then use c. If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. Abbreviate the word paragraph to para.
If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots For example: Cannonp. Cannonp. In a post about the emotions involved in undertaking a literature review, the Thesis What does nd mean in apa referencingpara. Block quotes need to start on a new line, be indented from the text margin and set in smaller text size without single inverted commas quotation marks. At the end of the quote, include the reference details such as author name, year and page number s in parentheses.
Ahmadjian noted that there has been disagreement over the influence of Japanese business groups on the economy. The City of Melbourne's population what to wear to a cotillion ball what does nd mean in apa referencing Identify works by the same author in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth, to the year in both the in-text reference and the reference list entry.
In the reference list, identify works by the same author s in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth to the year for example: a. Try to identify the sequence in which the works were published. If the sequence cannot be determined, put the references in alphabetical order by title. In the reference list, order works by different first authors with the same family name by the year of publication. When including two or more references in the same parentheses in a sentence, list all references alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon.
Include personal communication, such as face-to-face interviews, conversations, telephone calls, letters or emails, in an in-text reference. Information about personal communication must be included in the in-text reference. Include the type of personal communication for example: personal conversation, email, interview, telephone conversation and the date in a date-month-year format.
Personal conversation can be abbreviated to pers. However, personal communication references do not need to be included in the reference list. Use a secondary citation to acknowledge the work of an author s what does nd mean in apa referencing has been directly quoted or paraphrased in another author s work. In the in-text reference, include the original source of information and the source you have used.
In the reference list, include only the source you have used. In this example, you would only need to include the Hosany and Martin reference. If the place of publication is not commonly known for example: Harlow or the place of publication could be located in two or more countries, additional information is required.
Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, DVD, journal article, legislation, newspaper article, report, social media entry and thesis. Australian Bureau of StatisticsMeasures of Australia's progress: summary indicatorscat. A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author s.
Put direct quotes between single inverted commas quotation marksand add a page number. It is argued that strategies will need to be implemented to change how the areas of hazard reduction, waste and pollution are managed Cannon Cannon, TCorporate responsibility: governance, compliance and ethics in a sustainable environment2nd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.
There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned. It is critical to 'get the policy settings right so that the private sector is able to resume its position and take over from government as the primary driver of economic growth' Business Council of Australiap.
Business Council of Australia is in favour of stopping the stimulus and increasing productivity through job creation. Higher education in Australia: the factsp. Australia has a growing role in the education of international students Higher education in Australia: the facts If there is no author sbegin the reference list citation with the title of the book italicisedfollowed by the year, publisher and place of publication. Lewis and Lewisp. For in-text citations, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al.
Haslam et al. Order the citations of two or more works by placing the publication years after the author name in chronological order. Arrange works by the same author by year of publication, with the earliest year first. Use the initial of the author's given name s. When using a book chapter in an in-text reference, use the author s details of the chapter and not the editor s details of the book. If there is no chapter author, use the title of the chapter instead of the author details in the in-text reference and in the reference list.
If you use an edited book where the chapters have no identifying author s details in an in-text reference, use the editor s family name s as the author s. Generally, an edited book will only appear in a bibliography list.
A bibliography is used to list any other sources that you have read but not included in your writing. In the bibliography list, for an edited book, add ed. If you have used an edited book as part what does nd mean in apa referencing an in-text reference and need to add arma 3 altis life how to make money book details to a reference list, use the same format as the bibliography list entry.
If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading or chapter number. The word chapter can be abbreviated to ch. The topic of online gaming addiction can be considered through academic disclosure and other stakeholders Karlsen For e-books sourced from e-readers, replace the place of publication with the name of the e-reader device for example: Kindle. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.
Shannch. The work by Shann provides a history of Australia's economy at the time of Governor Phillip. If there is no author, cite the encyclopedia or dictionary title and the year. Italicise the encyclopedia or dictionary title. An encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author does not need to be included in the reference list. The ABC system is used 'to explain the genetic control of floral organ determination during flower development' Dictionary of biologyABC model entry.
During flower development, the ABC model is often used to explain how four genes can change a flower organ into another form Dictionary of biology One activity essential to reflection is referred to as metacognition, or thinking about thinking' AdamsAction research entry.
When undertaking action research, the researcher reflects on the research process and what has been learnt in practice Adams As details will vary for brochures, exhibition catalogues or pamphlets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.
The shared household fact sheet provides information for people sharing a house or unit Tenants Union of Victoria Di Trocchio et al. If there is no author sreference the title of the article and the year. Fazelp. Having mental health services based in schools can be beneficial for refugee students in adjusting to a new life Fazel Fazel, M'A moment of change: facilitating refugee children's mental health in UK schools', International Journal of Educational Developmentvol.
If there is no author sbegin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas quotation marks followed by the year, Journal title italicisedvolume, issue if suppliedpage details. For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al.
Hwong et what are the disadvantages of corporation. The psychology of social media what does nd mean in apa referencing in space science communication', Computers in Human Behaviorvol. If there is no author sbegin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas quotation marks followed by the year, Journal title italicisedvolume details if how to make a cast for a broken wristissue details if suppliedpage numbers if availableviewed date, Database name.
Ogilvypara. Ogilvy suggests that the tools and techniques for human enhancement need to be selected more carefully. If there is no author sbegin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas quotation marks followed by the year, How to build a elevated raised garden bed title italicisedvolume details if suppliedissue details if suppliedviewed date, URL address.
If there is no author, reference the newspaper title and the date and year for example: 2 October Italicise the newspaper title. Aged care providers are starting to introduce new fee schemes in response to changes to Federal government funding The Sunday Age 2 October Martin, P'Melbourne tops nation's growth rate: population record rise in city dwellers', The Age7 April, p. If there is no author s for a what does nd mean in apa referencing article from a Library database, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article with no author.
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