What is skeletal system wikipedia

what is skeletal system wikipedia

Category:Skeletal system

A skeleton (endoskeleton) is made up of bones.. See also: Category:Bone products Subcategories. This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total. The skeletal system or "skeleton" is under the skin, the muscle and the tissue of the body. The skeleton supports the skin, muscle and tissue, and all the organs that are inside the body. The skeleton protects important internal organs like the brain, heart and lungs.

The skeleton refers to the frames of support of animal bodies. There are two major types of skeletons: solid how to tell if going through menopause fluid.

Exoskeletons are external, and are found in many invertebrates ; they enclose and protect the soft tissues and organs of the body. Some kinds of exoskeletons undergo wiikpedia moulting or ecdysis as the animal grows, as is the case in many arthropods including insects and crustaceans.

The exoskeleton wikippedia insects is not only a form of protection, but also serves as a surface for muscle systwm, as a watertight protection against drying, and as a sense organ to interact with the environment. The shell of mollusks also performs all of the same functions, except that in most cases it does not contain sense organs.

An external skeleton can be quite heavy in relation to the overall mass of an animal, so on land, organisms that have an wikipedua are mostly relatively small. Somewhat larger aquatic animals can support an exoskeleton because weight is less of a consideration underwater. The southern giant clama species of extremely large saltwater clam in the Pacific Ocean, has a shell that is massive in both size and weight.

Syrinx aruanus is a species of sea snail with a very large shell. The endoskeleton is the internal support structure of an animal, composed of mineralized tissue and is typical of vertebrates. Endoskeletons vary in complexity from functioning purely for support as in the case of spongesto serving as an attachment site for muscles and a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces.

A true endoskeleton is derived from mesodermal tissue. Such a skeleton is present in echinoderms and chordates. Pliant skeletons are capable of movement; what is the treatment for hole in the heart, when stress is applied to the skeletal structure, it deforms and then reverts to its original shape.

This skeletal structure is used what in pickle juice helps with cramps some invertebrates, for instance in the hinge of bivalve shells or the mesoglea of cnidarians such as jellyfish. Pliant skeletons are beneficial because only muscle contractions are needed to bend the skeleton; what is skeletal system wikipedia muscle relaxation, the skeleton will return to its original shape.

Cartilage is what is skeletal system wikipedia material that a pliant skeleton may be composed of, but most pliant skeletons are how to use motorola radio from a mixture whqt proteinspolysaccharidesand water.

Organisms that have pliant skeletons typically live in water, which supports body structure in the absence of a rigid skeleton. Rigid skeletons are not capable of movement when stressed, creating a strong support system most common in terrestrial animals. Such a skeleton type used by animals that live in water are more for protection such as barnacle and snail shells or for fast-moving animals that require additional support of musculature needed for swimming through water.

Rigid skeletons are formed from materials including chitin in arthropodscalcium what is skeletal system wikipedia such what is skeletal system wikipedia calcium carbonate skeletak stony corals and mollusks and silicate for diatoms and radiolarians. The cytoskeleton gr. It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, protects the cell, enables cellular motion using structures such as flagellacilia and lamellipodiaand plays important roles in both intracellular transport the movement of vesicles and organellesfor example and cellular division.

A hydrostatic skeleton is a semi-rigid, soft tissue structure filled with liquid under pressure, surrounded by muscles. Longitudinal and circular muscles around their body sectors allow movement by alternate lengthening and contractions along their lengths.

A common example of this is the earthworm. The endoskeletons of echinoderms and some other soft-bodied invertebrates such as jellyfish and earthworms are also termed hydrostatic ; a body cavity the coelom is filled with coelomic fluid and the pressure from this fluid acts together with the surrounding muscles to change the organism's shape and produce movement.

The skeleton of sponges consists of microscopic calcareous or silicious spicules. Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein sponginthe mineral silicaor both. Where spicules of silica are present, they have a different shape from those in the otherwise similar glass sponges.

The skeleton of the echinodermswhich include, among other things, the starfishis composed of skeleta and a small amount of magnesium oxide. It lies below the epidermis in the mesoderm and is within cell clusters of frame-forming cells.

This structure formed is porous and therefore firm and at the same time light. It coalesces into small calcareous ossicles bony plateswhich can grow in all directions and thus can replace the loss of a body part.

Connected by joints, the individual skeletal parts can be moved by the muscles. In most vertebrates, the main skeletal component is referred to as bone. These bones compose a unique skeletal system for each type of animal. Another important component is cartilage which in mammals is found mainly in the joint areas. In other animals, such as the cartilaginous fishes, which include whay sharksthe skeleton is composed entirely of cartilage. The segmental pattern of the wikipeeia is present in all vertebrates mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians with basic units being repeated.

This what is skeletal system wikipedia pattern is particularly evident in the vertebral column and the ribcage. Bones in addition to supporting the body also serve, at the cellular level, as calcium and phosphate storage. The skeleton, which forms the support structure inside the fish is either made of cartilage as in the Chondrichthyesor bones as in the Osteichthyes. The main skeletal element is the vertebral column, composed of articulating vertebrae which are lightweight yet strong.

The ribs attach to the spine and there are no limbs or limb girdles. They are supported only by the muscles. The main external features of the fish, the finsare composed of either bony or soft spines called rays, which with the exception of the caudal fin tail finhave no direct connection with the spine.

They are supported by the muscles which compose the main part of the trunk. The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight. It is extremely lightweight, yet still strong enough to withstand the stresses of taking off, flying, and landing. One key adaptation is the fusing of bones into single ossificationssuch as the pygostyle.

Because of this, birds usually have a smaller number of bones than other terrestrial vertebrates. Birds also lack teeth or even a true jawinstead having evolved a beaksjeletal is far more lightweight. The beaks of systeem baby birds have a projection called an egg toothwhich facilitates their exit from the amniotic egg. To facilitate the movement of marine mammals in water, the hind legs were either lost altogether, as in the whales and manateesor united in a single tail fin as in the pinnipeds seals.

In what is skeletal system wikipedia whale, the cervical vertebrae are typically fused, an adaptation trading flexibility for stability during swimming. The skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligamentstendonsmuscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungsheart and spinal cord. Although the teeth do not consist of tissue commonly found in bones, the teeth are usually sjstem as members of the skeletal system.

Fused what is skeletal system wikipedia include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other. The hyoid bonewhich is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tonguedoes not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments.

There are bones in the adult human skeleton, although this number depends on whzt the pelvic bones the hip bones sksletal each side are counted as one or three bones on each side ilium, ischium, and pubiswhether the coccyx or tail bone is counted as one or four separate bones, and does not count the variable wormian bones between skull sutures. Similarly, the sacrum is usually counted as a single bone, rather than five fused vertebrae.

There is also a variable number of small sesamoid bones, commonly found in tendons. The patella or kneecap on each side is an example of a larger sesamoid bone. The patellae are counted in the total, as they are constant. The number of bones varies between individuals and with age — wuat babies have over bones [10] [11] [12] some of which fuse what is skeletal system wikipedia. These bones are organized into a longitudinal axis, the axial skeletonto which the appendicular skeleton is attached.

The human skeleton takes 20 years before it is fully developed, and the bones contain marrowwhich produces wikipedis cells. There exist several general differences between the male and female skeletons.

The male what is skeletal system wikipedia, for example, is generally larger and heavier than the female skeleton. In the female skeleton, the bones of the skull are generally less angular. The female skeleton also has wider and shorter breastbone and slimmer wrists. There exist significant differences between the male and female pelvis which are related to the female's pregnancy and childbirth capabilities.

The female pelvis is wider and shallower than the male pelvis. Female pelvises also have an enlarged pelvic outlet and a wider and more circular pelvic inlet. The angle between the pubic bones is known to what is another word for inappropriate sharper in males, which results in a more circular, narrower, and near heart-shaped pelvis.

Bones are rigid wkeletal that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.

Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones have a variety of shapes with a complex internal and external structure they are also lightweight, yet strong and hard. One of the types of tissue that makes up bone tissue is mineralized tissue and this gives it rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure.

Other types of tissue found in bones include marrowendosteum and periosteumnervesblood vessels and cartilage. During embryonic development the precursor to bone development is cartilage that mostly wikiepdia replaced by bone, after flesh such as muscle has formed around it.

Cartilage is a stiff and inflexible connective tissue found in many areas including the joints between bones, the rib cagethe ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

It iz not as hard and rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle. Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount how to exchange canadian money in cuba extracellular matrix composed of Type II collagen except fibrocartilage which also contains type I collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycansand elastin fibers.

Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilagehyaline cartilage and fibrocartilagewhich differ in the relative amounts of these three main components. Unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. The chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion, helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. Thus, compared to other connective tissues, cartilage grows and repairs more slowly.

A ligament is a what is skeletal system wikipedia of rubbery tissue that connects bone to other bone. A tendon is a rubber-band like tissue that connects muscle to bone.

It is not to be confused with the ligamenta similar tissue that what is skeletal system wikipedia bone to bone. In Western culturethe human skeleton is oftentimes seen as a fearful symbol of death and wilipedia paranormal. It is a popular motif in the holiday Halloweenas well as Day of the Dead. Skeletons can also be found in movies.

The Functions of the Skeletal System

skeletal system the body's framework of bones; there are distinct bones in the body of an average adult human. (See anatomic Table of Bones in the Appendices and see Plates.) The bones give support and shape to the body, protect delicate internal organs, and provide sites of attachment for muscles to make motion possible. Aug 30,  · What is the skeletal system? The human skeletal system consists of all of the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments in the body. Altogether, the skeleton makes up . Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, dense connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton, the support structure of the datlovesdat.com the areas of the skeleton where bones move (for example, the ribcage and joints), cartilage, a semi-rigid form of connective tissue, provides flexibility and smooth surfaces for datlovesdat.com skeletal system is the body system composed of bones and cartilage.

See anatomic Table of Bones in the Appendices and see Plates. The bones give support and shape to the body, protect delicate internal organs, and provide sites of attachment for muscles to make motion possible. In addition, they store and help maintain the correct level of calcium , and the bone marrow manufactures blood cells.

Called also skeleton. Main Parts of the Skeleton. There are two main parts of the skeleton: the axial skeleton, including the bones of the head and trunk, and the appendicular skeleton, including the bones of the limbs. The axial skeleton has 80 bones and the appendicular skeleton has bones. Axial Skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the skull, the spine, and the ribs and sternum. The most important of these is the spine called also the spinal or vertebral column , consisting of 26 separate bones.

Twenty-four vertebrae have holes through them, which are lined up vertically to form a hollow tube called the spinal canal ; the spinal cord runs through this canal and is protected by it. The seven topmost vertebrae, in the neck, are the cervical vertebrae; they support the skull, which encloses and protects the brain and provides protection for the eyes, inner ears, and nasal passages.

The skull includes the cranium, the facial bones, and the auditory ossicles. Of the 28 bones of the skull, only one, the mandible, is movable. Below the cervical vertebrae are 12 thoracic vertebrae; attached to them are 12 pairs of ribs , one pair to a vertebra. The ribs curve around to the front of the body, where most attach directly to the sternum or are indirectly attached to it by means of cartilage.

The two bottom pairs of ribs are unattached in front and are called floating ribs. Together, the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum form a bony basket called the thoracic or rib cage, which prevents the chest wall from collapsing and protects the heart and the lungs.

The remaining bones of the spine include five lumbar vertebrae, which support the small of the back, and the sacrum and coccyx. The axial skeleton also includes a single bone in the neck, the hyoid bone, to which muscles of the mouth are attached.

This is the only bone of the body that does not join with another bone. Appendicular Skeleton. The appendicular skeleton includes the shoulder girdle, bones of the upper limb, pelvic girdle, and bones of the lower limb. The shoulder girdle, from which the arms hang, consists of two clavicles and two scapulae ; the scapulae are joined to the sternum.

The upper limb has three long bones. The uppermost bone is the humerus , whose upper proximal end fits into a socket in the shoulder girdle; its lower distal end is connected at the elbow to the ulna and radius , the two long bones of the forearm. Eight small bones, the carpals, compose the wrist.

Five metacarpals form the palm of the hand, and the finger bones are made up of 14 phalanges in each hand. At the lower end of the spine is the pelvic girdle; it, along with the last two bones of the spinal column the sacrum and coccyx , forms the pelvis.

This part of the skeleton encircles and protects the internal organs of the genitourinary system. In each side of the pelvis is the acetabulum , a socket into which a femur fits. The bones of the lower limb are similar in construction to those of the upper limb but are heavier and stronger. The femur thigh bone , which is the longest bone in the body, extends from the pelvis to the knee. The tibia and the fibula are long bones that extend from the knee to the ankle.

On the knee is another single bone, the patella or kneecap. In each leg there are seven ankle bones, or tarsals; five foot bones, or metatarsals; and 14 toe bones, or phalanges. Joints and Movement. Anywhere in the skeleton that two or more bones come together is known as a joint. The way these bones are joined determines whether they can move and how they move.

The elbow, for example, is a hinge joint, which allows bending in only one direction. In contrast, both bending and rotary movements are possible in the hip joint, a ball-and-socket joint. Many joints, such as most of those in the skull, are rigid and permit no movement whatsoever.

The force needed to move the bones is provided by muscles , which are attached to the bones by tendons. A muscle typically spans a joint so that one end is attached by a tendon to one bone, and the other end to a second bone. Usually one bone serves as an anchor for the muscle, and the second bone is free to move. When the muscle contracts, it pulls the second bone. Actually, two sets of muscles that pull in opposite directions take part in any movement.

When one set contracts, the opposing set relaxes. The parts of a system can be referred to as its elements or components; the environment of the system is defined as all of the factors that affect the system and are affected by it. A living system is capable of taking in matter, energy, and information from its environment input , processing them in some way, and returning matter, energy, and information to its environment as output.

An open system is one in which there is an exchange of matter, energy, and information with the environment; in a closed system there is no such exchange. A living system cannot survive without this exchange, but in order to survive it must maintain pattern and organization in the midst of constant change.

Control of self-regulation of an open system is achieved by dynamic interactions among its elements or components. The result of self-regulation is referred to as the steady state; that is, a state of equilibrium. A system can be divided hierarchically into subsystems, which can be further subdivided into sub-subsystems and components. A system and its environment could be considered as a unified whole for purposes of study, or a subsystem could be studied as a system.

For example, the collection of glands in the endocrine system can be thought of as a system, each endocrine gland could be viewed as a system, or even specific cells of a single gland could be studied as a system. It is also possible to think of the human body as a living system and the endocrine system as a subsystem. The division of a system into a subsystem and its environment is dependent on the perspective chosen by the person studying a particular phenomenon.

Systems, subsystems, and suprasystems. Within the environment there are suprasystems, such as human society, and systems within the suprasystem, such as the educational and industrial systems and the health care delivery system.

Within the health care delivery system are subsystems, such as the patient, family members, the nurse, the physician, and allied health care professionals and paraprofessionals. CD system c luster d esignation a system for classifying cell-surface markers expressed by lymphocytes based on a computer analysis of monoclonal antibodies against hla antigens , with antibodies having similar specificity characteristics being grouped together and assigned a number CD1, CD2, CD3, etc.

See also CD antigen. Emergency Medical Services EMS system a comprehensive program designed to provide services to the patient in the prehospital setting. The system is activated when a call is made to the EMS operator, who then dispatches an ambulance to the patient.

The patient receives critical interventions and is stabilized at the scene. A communication system allows the health care workers at the scene to contact a trauma center for information regarding further treatment and disposition of the patient, followed by transportation of the patient to the most appropriate facility for treatment. See Plates. Called also urogenital system. Haversian system: Structures of compact and spongy bone with the central haversian canal surrounded by the lamellae.

From Applegate, His-Purkinje system the intraventricular conduction system from the bundle of His to the distal Purkinje fibers, which carries the impulse to the ventricles. Home Health Care Classification system see home health care classification system. It is associated with olfaction, autonomic functions, and certain aspects of emotion and behavior. The term has been proposed to replace reticuloendothelial system , which includes some cells of different origin and does not include all macrophages.

Omaha system see omaha system. There are two general types: the fixed performance or high flow type, which can supply all of the needs of a patient for inspired gas at a given fractional inspired oxygen; and the variable performance or low flow type, which cannot supply all of the patient's needs for oxygen and delivers fractional inspired oxygen that varies with ventilatory demand.

The organs of the system include the nose , the pharynx , the larynx , the trachea , the bronchi , and the lungs. See also respiration and Plates 7 and 8. SI system see SI units. Unified Medical Language system see unified medical language system. Unified Nursing Language system see unified nursing language system. Following review by a nurse, a copy of the physician's original order is sent to the pharmacy, where the pharmacist reviews it again.

The pharmacist then fills the order and delivers the medication to the patient care unit, usually in a hour supply. Each patient has an individual supply of medications prepared and labeled by the pharmacist. All rights reserved. The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.

Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? The therapy is an injectable, HA-based, settable, osteoconductive calcium phosphate bone substitute material, and it is indicated for filling bone voids or defects of the skeletal system i. Special technology in the goals recorded how hard pupils were able to kick footballs, helping them to gain a clearer understanding of muscles and the skeletal system in action and how the two systems work in tandem to allow movement.

Pupils have a ball at health session. One glance at these futuristic looking bots will show how similar their structure is to a human's muscle and skeletal system. Another study conducted by the Indian Medical Association revealed that heavy bags can result in permanent disability as growth of the skeletal system among children occurs during puberty. Less in brain, more in bag. In the first movie that explains the skeletal system , the steps taken to generate the sectioned images and surface models were also shown in addition.

Written by radiologists and other clinicians from North America and Australia, the 11 chapters cover basic principles and quality control, radiopharmaceuticals for clinical SPECT studies, and clinical applications of the imaging in neuroscience, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, neoplastic disease, the skeletal system , infection and inflammation, and pediatric cases, with cases in each chapter and ending with a compilation of interesting cases in other areas, such as a pseudoaneurysm and bile gastritis.

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