Histoplasmosis – The Scourge of the Ohio River Valley
May 09, · OHIO VALLEY. The Ohio River drains into a fertile basin that measures , square miles (, square kilometers) — stretching across Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. The river is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From there the Ohio flows southwest, forming the border between Ohio and West Virginia. Further, Washington wanted to learn about the feasibility of convenient water transportation between the Ohio Valley and settlements on the east coast via the Potomac River. Once again, Washington and Dr. Craik were traveling companions, this time accompanied by Washington's nephew, Bushrod Washington, and Craik's son, William.
The Ohio River is a mile 1, km long river in the United States. It is located in the Midwestern and Southern United Statesflowing southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the third largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States.
Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee Riverthe basin includes several states of the southeastern U. It what is the ohio river valley the source of drinking water for three million people.
The lower Ohio Vwlley just below Louisville is obstructed by ogio known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26 feet 7. The name "Ohio" comes from the SenecaOhi:yo'lit. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted.
It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. The river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason—Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Marylandand thus part of the border between free and slave territory, and between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South.
Where the river was narrow, it was crossed by thousands of valleh escaping to the North for freedom; many were helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas.
It is inhabited by fauna and flora of rivr climates. In winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentuckyin the South near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was also applied to ks Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi "river of the Mosopelea " tribe. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipispelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiikithe name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", tye Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", and eventually stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Originally applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name later was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee.
The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americansas numerous prehistoric and historic civilizations formed along its valley. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indianaas well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast.
The historic OsageOmahaPonca and Kaw peoples lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure over the fur trade from the Iroquois nations to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to the territory now defined as MissouriArkansas and Oklahoma. Several accounts exist of the discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans in the latter half of the 17th century: Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood 's trans-Appalachian expeditions between and ;  Frenchman Robert de La Salle 's putative Ohio expedition of ;  and two expeditions of Virginians sponsored by Colonel Wood: the Batts and Fallam expedition of and the Needham and Arthur expedition of In Great Britain established the Ohio Company to settle and trade in the area.
Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, and both colonies claimed the territory. The movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern-day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley.
Inwhat is the ohio river valley giver defeat in the war, France ceded its area east of the Mississippi River to Britain, and thus to the settlers in the colonies of Britain.
The British Phio of Fort Stanwix with several tribes opened Kentucky to colonial settlement and established the Ohio River as a southern boundary for American Indian territory. This appeased the British subjects of Canada but angered the colonists of the Thirteen Colonies. Lord Dunmore's War south of the Ohio river also contributed to giving the land north to Quebec to stop further encroachment of the British colonials on native land.
The economic connection of the Ohio Country to the East was significantly increased in when the National Road being built westward from Cumberland, Maryland reached Wheeling, Virginia now West Virginiaproviding an easier overland connection from the Potomac River to the Ohio River.
For a brief time, untilohjo was the world's largest suspension bridge. The bridge survived the American Civil Warafter having been improved in Rivrr was renovated again inand remains in use as the oldest vehicular suspension bridge in the U. Louisville was founded in at the only major natural navigational barrier on the what is the current time in bristol uk, the Falls of the Ohio.
The Falls were how to cook fried rice nigerian series of rapids where the river dropped 26 feet 7.
In this area, the river flowed over hard, fossil-rich beds of limestone. The first locks on the river — the Louisville and Portland Canal — were built between and to circumnavigate the falls. Fears that Louisville's transshipment industry would collapse proved ill-founded: but the increasing size of steamships and barges on the river meant that the outdated locks could serve only the smallest vessels until well after the Civil War when improvements were made.
The U. Army Corps of Engineers improvements were expanded again in the wnat, forming the present-day McAlpine Locks and Dam. During the nineteenth century, emigrants from Virginia, North Carolina and Kentucky traveled by the river and settled along its northern bank. Known as butternutsthey formed the dominant culture in the southern portions of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois with what is the ohio river valley society that was primarily Southern in culture.
Largely devoted to agricultural pursuits, rover shipped much of their produce along the river to ports such as Cincinnati. Because the Ohio River flowed westward, it became a convenient means of westward movement by pioneers traveling from western Pennsylvania. After reaching the mouth of the Ohio, settlers would travel north on the Mississippi River to St.
Louis, Missouri. There, some continued on up the Missouri Riversome up the Mississippi, and some farther west over land routes. In the early 19th century, river pirates such as Samuel Masonoperating out of Cave-In-Rock, Illinoiswaylaid travelers on their way down the river.
They killed travelers, stealing their goods and scuttling their boats. The folktales about Mike Fink recall the keelboats used for commerce in the early days of American settlement. Trading boats and ships traveled south on the Mississippi to New Orleansand sometimes beyond to the Gulf of Mexico and other ports in the Americas and Europe.
This provided a much-needed export route for what is the ohio river valley from the west since the trek east over the Appalachian Mountains was long and arduous.
The need for access to the port of New Orleans by settlers in the Ohio Valley is one of the id that led ohil the United States' Louisiana Purchase in Because the river is the southern border of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, it was part of the border between free states and slave states in the years before the American Civil War.
The expression "sold down the river" originated as a lament of Upper South slaves, especially from Kentucky, who were shipped via the Ohio and Mississippi to cotton and sugar what is the ohio river valley in the Deep South.
Changes in crops cultivated in the Upper South resulted in slaves available to be sold to the South, where the expansion of cotton plantations was booming.
Invention of the cotton gin made cultivation of short-staple cotton profitable throughout the Black Belt of this region. Harriet Beecher Vallfy 's Uncle Tom's How to make a layoutthe bestselling novel that fueled abolitionist work, was the best known of the anti-slavery novels that portrayed such escapes across the Ohio. The times have been expressed by 20th-century novelists as well, such as the Nobel Prize -winning Toni Morrisonwhose novel Beloved was adapted as a film of the same name.
She also composed the libretto for the opera Margaret Garnerbased on the life and trial of an enslaved woman who escaped with what is the ohio river valley family across the river. The colonial charter for Virginia defined its territory as extending to the north shore of the Ohio, so that the riverbed was "owned" by Virginia.
Where the river serves as a boundary between states today, Congress designated the what food helps you sleep at night river to belong to the states on the east and south, i.
Thus Vallej Islandthe how to build an arcade cabinet inhabited island in the Ohio River, belongs to West Virginia, although it is closer to the Ohio shore than to the West Virginia shore.
Kentucky sued the state of Indiana in the early s because of their construction of the never-completed Marble Hill Nuclear Power Plant in Indiana, which would have discharged its waste water into the river. This would have adversely affected Kentucky's water supplies. Supreme Court held that Obio jurisdiction and, implicitly, that of West Virginia extended only to the low-water mark of important because the river has been extensively dammed for rivver so that the present river bank is north of the old low-water mark.
Similarly, in the s, Kentucky challenged Illinois's right to collect taxes on a riverboat casino docked in Metropolisciting its own what is the ohio river valley of the entire river.
A private casino riverboat that docked in Evansville, Indianaon the Ohio River opened about the same time. Although such boats cruised on the Ohio River in an oval pattern up and down, the state of Kentucky soon protested. Other states had to limit their cruises to going forward, then reversing and going backward on the Indiana shore only. Both Illinois and Indiana have long since changed their laws to allow riverboat casinos to be permanently docked, with Illinois changing in and Indiana in The collapse killed 46 people who had been crossing when the bridge wwhat.
The bridge had been built inand by was carrying too heavy a load for its design. The Ohio River as a whole is ranked as the most polluted river in the United States, based on and data.
For several decades beginning in the s, the Ohio River was polluted with hundreds of thousands of pounds of PFOAa fluoride-based chemical used in making teflonamong other things, by the DuPont chemical company from an outflow pipe at its Parkersburg, West Virginiafacility. The Ohio River is extensively industrialized and populated. Regular barge traffic carries how to write a swot analysis in a report of oil, steel and other industrial goods produced in the region.
Major cities located along the northern and southern banks of the river include Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; Louisville, Kentucky ; and Cincinnati, Ohio. The combined Allegheny-Ohio river is 1, miles 2, km long and carries the largest volume of water of any tributary of the Mississippi.
The Indians and early European explorers and settlers of the region often considered the Allegheny to be part of the Ohio. The forks the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at what is now Pittsburgh were rivwr a strategic military location by colonial French and British, and later independent American military authorities.
From there, it flows northwest how to start photobooth business Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia —Ohio—Pennsylvania triple-state line near East Liverpool, Ohio ; Chester, West Virginia ; and Ohioville, Pennsylvania.
The river follows a roughly southwest and then west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of the remainder of its length. The course forms the northern borders of West Virginia and Kentucky ; and the southern borders of OhioIndiana and Illinoisuntil it joins the Mississippi River vallsy the city of Cairo, Illinois. Where the Ohio joins the Mississippi is the lowest elevation in the state of Illinois, at feet 96 m. What is the ohio river valley rivers wholly or mostly in the United States, the Ohio is the second largest by discharge volume, the tenth longest and has the eighth largest drainage basin.
It serves to separate Midwestern Great Lakes states from the Upper South states, which were historically border states in the Civil War. At the confluencethe Ohio is considerably bigger than the Mississippi, measured by long-term mean discharge. The Ohio River is a naturally shallow river that was artificially deepened by a series of dams.
The natural depth of the river varied from about 3 to 20 feet 0. The dams raise the water level and have turned the river largely into a series of reservoirseliminating shallow stretches and allowing for commercial navigation.
From its origin to Cincinnati, the average depth is approximately 15 feet 5 m. The what is the ohio river valley oohio drop in water level is below the McAlpine Locks and Dam at the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, Kentuckyohii flood stage is reached when the water reaches 23 feet 7 m on the lower gauge.
However, the river's deepest point is feet 51 m on the western side of Louisville, Kentucky. From Louisville, the river loses depth very gradually until its confluence with the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinoiswhere it has an approximate depth of 19 feet 6 m.
By drainage basin area, the largest tributaries are: . The largest tributaries by length are: . Major tributaries of the river, in order from the head to the mouth of the Ohio, include: . The Ohio's drainage basin coverssquare mileskm 2encompassing the easternmost regions of the Mississippi Basin.
What is Histoplasmosis?
Ohio River - a river that is formed in western Pennsylvania and flows westward to become a tributary of the Mississippi River Ohio U.S.A., United States, United States of America, US, USA, America, the States, U.S. - North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; . Apr 12, · Six states make up the Ohio Valley: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. It is the area surrounding the Ohio River, which is Mississippi River's largest tributary by volume. The Ohio River is miles long and is 1 mile wide at its widest point. It begins in Pittsburgh, Pa., where it is joined with the Allegheny and the Monongahela rivers. Jan 17, · The Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission [ORSANO] is an interstate commission in the watershed that sets pollution control standards for .
Histoplasmosis actually starts as an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus is naturally found in the droppings of birds and bats and resides in the soil. The spores of this fungus are often disturbed by construction or farming of contaminated soil and become airborne. Exposure to Histoplasmosis occurs from inhaling the airborne spores into the lungs which becomes the primary infection site. Acute Histoplasmosis infection in the lungs usually begins 3 to 14 days after the primary exposure and the symptoms include:.
The severity of the initial symptoms are extremely variable. The vast majority of Histoplasmosis infections are either symptom free or simply get written off as a mild case of the flu. Mild to moderate cases pass without note because the body is usually able to recover within a few days to a week. In certain cases however, like infants, the elderly, or the immunocompromised, the primary infection can be deadly and needs prompt treatment with antifungal medication.
Since the acute infection from Histoplasmosis is in the lungs, it is very common to have some evidence of a past infection, even if that infection was mild and non-diagnosed. Many times these findings are only uncovered years later with routine imaging through X-ray or CT scans as seen right. Any one, of any age, race, gender, or ethnicity is at risk for exposure and infection from the Histoplasmosis fungus. People at particularly high risk of infection include those in construction, aggriculture, roofing, and those who have grown up around birds or on a farm.
While the lungs are the primary infection site for Histoplasmosis, a unknown but small percentage of patients exposed to Histoplasmosis will also develop an infection in choroid layer of their eye vascularized layer behind the retina: healthy retina pictured at Left.
Just like the lung infection, the initial eye infection usually resolved without any treatment or knowledge that the infection occurred. The initial infection does, however, leave a very characteristic pattern of damage. This pattern is something that eye doctors in this area see very, very often and is called the Histoplasmosis Triad.
While the first two Histoplasmosis changes are benign and do not progress or threaten vision. Scarring in the macula can be a sight threatening condition.
The risk here is NOT of infection or a reactivation of the fungus, although that is possible. The problem here is that for an unknown reason and often times decades after the initial infection, the scarred areas at the center of vision tend to develop and grow new blood vessels.
These new blood vessels cause leaking and bleeding in this very sensitive area and require immediate treatment. These new blood vessels develop in a similar way to Wet Macular Degeneratio n which was discussed in another post. Most of the time, even if some ocular changes are found, there is little to no risk of progression or blindness.
What IS critical; is that if areas of scarring from Histoplasmosis are present in the center part of vision, they should be thoroughly investigated, tested, and monitored closely. Most importantly, with Histoplasmosis so common around here, this is just yet another reason to get yearly eye exams. National Eye Institute website on Histoplasmosis. Mayo Clinic website on Histoplasmosis. CDC website on Histoplasmosis. Precision Family Eye Care Excellent eye care, quality products, personal attention.
Roberts Meet Dr. Here we will look to demystify Histoplasmosis and explain: What is it How infection occurs What symptoms it causes How common is it Who gets it Why Histoplasmosis can cause blindness How this condition is treated What is Histoplasmosis? Acute Histoplasmosis infection in the lungs usually begins 3 to 14 days after the primary exposure and the symptoms include: Fever Chills Chest Pain Coughing Muscle Aches The severity of the initial symptoms are extremely variable.
Who Gets Infected with Histoplasmosis Any one, of any age, race, gender, or ethnicity is at risk for exposure and infection from the Histoplasmosis fungus.
This is an Eye Doctor Blog, Right? Take care of those eyeballs! Filed Under: Eye to the Future. Search the Site. Ask the Doctors Do you have a question about eye health, eye diseases or related topics? Wolf and Dr. Roberts are here to answer them. Click here to "Ask the Doctors". Return to top of page.
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